Deepak R Mishra
Application of geospatial science including remote sensing, GIS, and GPS to inland and coastal environments.
My broad research interests are:
Remote Sensing of Wetlands Health, Productivity, and Carbon Sequestration
Remote Sensing of Water Quality (Inland Waters, Estuaries, Coastal, and Open Ocean Waters)
Remote Sensing in Monitoring Global Climate Change (Impact of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Resources)
Ocean Optics and Satellite Oceanography
Cyber-innovated Environmental Sensing, Monitoring, and Modeling
- PhD (2006), University of Nebraska, Lincoln Natural Resources
- M. Tech (2002), Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Civil Engineering
29. EAGER: A sensor cloud-based community-centric approach for analyzing and mitigating Urban Heat Hazards, NSF, $238,399. 09/15/2016-09/14/2018
28. Digital orbital analysis of water resources for Georgia, NASA, $467,218. 06/22/2016-06/21/2018
27. GeorgiaSat-1, (Co-Is: numerous), AFRL/Space Dynamics Laboratory, $147,466. 01/01/2016-12/31/2017.
26. Understanding the trajectory of coastal salt marsh structure, function, and processes in the face of sea level rise: a synthesis from historical imagery, biophysical processes, and hierarchical modeling, (Co-Is: P. Biber, W. Wu, and G. Carter), National Academy of Sciences, $506,619. 01/01/2016-12/31/2018.
25. A novel hybrid approach for mapping belowground productivity and carbon sequestration potential within Georgia salt marshes, (Co-Is: J. O’Connell, M. Alber, and K. Byrd), GA SeaGrant, $212,808. 02/01/2016-01/31/2018.
24. Utilizing NASA earth observations and proximal remote sensing for mapping spatio-temporal distribution of Hydrilla, NASA DEVELOP. 05/15/2015-07/31/2015.
23. Understanding and managing the risk from cyanobacteria toxicity in farm ponds due to land management and climate interactions, (Co-Is: L. Kramer, and S. Wilde), NIFA/USDA- NNF, $36,000. 08/01/2015-07/31/2017.
22. CyberSEES: Type 1: Meghdoot: A Multi-Cloud Infrastructure for Enhancing Sustainability via Effective Monitoring of Inland Waters and Coastal Wetlands, (Co-Is: L. Ramaswamy, and S. Bhandarkar), NSF, $399,912. 10/01/2014-09/30/2016.
21. A MODIS biophysical parameters centered framework for monitoring carbon sequestration potential of Gulf Coast salt marshes, NASA, $441,413. 09/01/2014 - 08/30/2015.
20. Implications of eutrophication and climate change in promoting toxic cyanobacterial blooms in agricultural ponds across Georgia, (Co-Is: S. Wilde), USGS/Georgia Water Resources Institute, $54,320. 08/01/2014-07/31/2015.
19. Developing a cyanobacteria detection tool for Georgia inland waters using NASA Landsat-8 OLI data for water quality protection and restoration, NASA DEVELOP. 06/15/2014-11/30/2014.
18. Parametrization of a bio-optical model for deriving inherent optical properties in tropical reservoirs in Brazil: Nova Avanhandava and Barra Bonita (Sao Paulo State), (Co-Is: E. Alcantara), Science without Borders: CNPq/MCTI, Govt. of Brazil, R$323,287. 08/11/2013-08/10/2016.
17. Preliminary research and data gathering for resubmission of the NSF-CyberSEES proposal- CyberSEES: Type 1: Meghdoot: A multi-cloud infrastructure for effective monitoring of inland waters and coastal wetlands sustainability, (Co-Is: L. Ramaswamy, and S. Bhandarkar), UGA OVPR, $10,000. 01/01/2014-05/15/2014.
16. Transformational approach to monitoring water quality sustainability of coastal ecosystems from satellite remote sensing, (Co-I: B. Schaeffer), NRL. 11/1/2012-12/31/2014.
15. Model to separate water column chlorophyll and benthic vegetation signals from HICO data, (Co-I: H. J. Cho), NRL. 11/1/2012-12/31/2014.
14. RAPID: Quantifying the impact of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill on the health and productivity of Louisiana salt marshes, (Co-I: J. Cho), NSF, $199,703.
13. Strengthening global climate change education through remote sensing application in coastal environment using NASA satellite data and models, (Co-PI: J. Cho), NASA, $320,977.
12. Physics-based ocean-color algorithms for water-quality products of coastal and inland waters, (Co-I: Z. Lee), NASA, $194,550.
11. A MODIS based decision support tool for Gulf Coast salt marsh conservation and restoration, (Co-Is: D. Reed and A. Gitelson), NASA, $395,439.
10. A regional partnership for climate science literacy in the southeastern United States, (Co-Is: K. McNeal, R. Smith, D. Hare, D. Rutherford, U. Nair, J. Cho, V. Anantharaj, J. Paz), NSF, $998,998.
9. Comprehensive study of the impact of the deepwater horizon oil spill on the health and productivity of Gulf Coast salt marshes, (Co-Is: K. McNeal, A. Mercer, and B. Cooke), NGI Phase-2, $193,775.
8. How healthy is this marsh? Employing innovative remote sensing techniques for assessing marsh health in restoration projects involving high school students and teachers, (Co-I: Diane Maygarden), Louisiana Sea Grant, $149,987.
7. Developing a tool for remote detection of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom in Mississippi waters: A tangible step toward an early warning system, Henry Fund-Mississippi State University, $10,000.
6. Field sampling to study the impact of Deepwater horizon oil spill on the health and productivity of Gulf Coast salt marshes, (Co-Is: K. McNeal, A. Mercer, and B. Cooke), Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, $80,876.
5. Developing a geospatial tool to quantify the effectiveness of the previous and current marsh restoration efforts, Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, $75,000.
4. Comprehensive study of the impact of the deepwater horizon oil spill on the health and productivity of Gulf Coast salt marshes, NGI Phase-1, $60,000; 05/202010 - 12/2010.
3. Measuring 2005 land loss in the Pontchartrain Basin using high resolution color infrared aerial photography at a scale of 1/12,000: Hurricane impact, NOAA, $89,128.
2. Mapping, quantifying, and predicting current and future invasive plant species spread along the North Platte River corridor In Nebraska (PI: S. Narumalani), USDA, $45,000.
1. Natural resources mapping of Camp Ashland Training Site, Ashland, NE, using high density LIDAR (PI: S. Narumalani), Nebraska Army National Guard, $69,000.
Coastal environments have been steadily subjected to natural and anthropogenic events such as hurricanes, coastal development, sea level rise, and over fishing. These changes have resulted in wetland loss, water quality degradation, loss of barrier islands, reduced storm surge protection, and decline of fisheries. Therefore, continuous monitoring and restoration of the fragile ecosystems is fundamental to life along the coast. Geospatial technologies provide the tools to monitor these ecosystems at large spatial scale and in a timely fashion. My research includes combining field-based remote sensing (spectroscopy) with the traditional satellite remote sensing to model and map various water quality and vegetation biophysical characteristics of the coastal environments.
Current projects focus on: (1) Developing a MODIS based decision support tool for Coastal salt marsh conservation and restoration in Southeastern U.S.; (2) Developing semi- and quasi-analytical models to remotely predict phycocyanin concentration and map cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom; (3) Developing satellite based model to predict net primary productivity and carbon sequestration potential of wetlands; (4) Quantifying the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the health and productivity of Gulf Coast wetlands; (5) Sea Level Rise and coastal resources; (6) Seagrass mapping and Coral disease detection using remote sensing; (7) Developing a cyberinfrastructure by combining social, computational, and sensor clouds for monitoring coastal marshes and inland water quality, and (8) Small satellite development.
Find more at:
- Research Honors Award, SEDAAG 2015
- Elected Co-Editor Southeastern Geographer
- Best Poster Award, Southeast Climate Consortium Annual Meeting, 2015
- NSF funded Meghdoot project featured at http://news.uga.edu/releases/article/crowdsourcing-cyanotracker-harmful-algal-blooms-georgia-lakes-0215/
- NASA grant featured at http://news.uga.edu/releases/article/satellite-mapping-tools-to-measure-carbon-capture-in-salt-marshes-1114/
- Research activities featured in Gulf Research Initiative website at: http://gulfresearchinitiative.org/2012/identification-of-marsh-stress-hot-spots-leads-to-restoration-tool/
- Research activities featured in May 2012 issue of NOAA Communicator at: http://www.externalaffairs.noaa.gov/communicator/noaacom_16.html
- Vastag, B. (2011, April 18). A year after BP spill, fate of Gulf ecosystem still murky. Washington Post, Web: http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/a-year-after-bp-oil-spill-fate-of-gulf-ecosystem-remains-murky/2011/04/15/AFH3FEwD_story.html
- Kaufman, L. (2011, April 11). Gulf's complexity and resilience seen in studies of oil spill. The New York Times, Web: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/12/science/12spill.html?pagewanted=all
- Mississippi State University - Centers and Institutes Faculty Research Award (2012)
- Geosystems Research Institute, Mississippi State University: GRI Academic Faculty of the year (2011)
- University of Nebraska, Lincoln- Outstanding Research Assistant of the year of UNL (2006)
- David and Anne Larric Student Fund, School of Natural Resources, UNL, (2005)
- ONR/NSF funding for attending a training course on Ocean Optics: Radiative Transfer and Inversions of Ocean Color Remote Sensingâ€ at Darling Marine Center, Maine, (2004)
- Ted Elliott Memorial Student Fellowship, School of Natural Resources, (2004)
- Goddard Coastal Research (GCR) Fellowship, GSFC, NASA, (2003)
- Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (O.N.G.C), Chennai, India, Gold Medal, (2000)
- Pondicherry University Gold Medal, (2000)
50. Kumar, A., D. R. Mishra, Sk. Md. Equeen, H. J. Cho, and G. Rastogi (2016). Differential impact of anniversary severe cyclones on the water quality of a tropical coastal lagoon, Estuaries and Coasts (in press)
49. Mishra, D. R., S. Ghosh, and J. Cho (2016). BP oil spill. Encyclopaedia of Natural Hazards, Taylor and Francis (in press)
48. Ogashawara, I., D. R. Mishra, R. F. F. Nascimento, E. H. Alcântara, M. Kampel, J. L. Stech (2016). Re-parameterization of a quasi-analytical algorithm for Colored Dissolved Organic Matter dominant inland waters, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 53:128-145, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2016.09.001
47. Watanabe, F., D. R. Mishra, I. Astuti, T. Rodrigues, E. Alcântara, N. N. Imai, and C. Barbosa (2016). Parameterization and calibration of a quasi-analytical algorithm for tropical eutrophic waters, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 121: 28-47, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2016.08.009.
46. Wang, G., Z. Lee, D. R. Mishra, and R. Ma (2016). Retrieving absorption coefficients of multiple phytoplankton pigments from hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance measured over cyanobacteria bloom waters, Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 14(7): 432-447, doi:10.1002/lom3.10102
45. Mishra, D. R., and R. W. Gould, Jr (2016). Preface: Remote sensing in coastal environments, Remote Sensing, 8(8), 665, doi:10.3390/rs8080665
44. Rotta, L. H., D. R. Mishra, E. H. Alcântara, and N. N. Imai (2016). Analyzing the status of submerged aquatic vegetation using novel optical parameters, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 37(16), 3786-3810, DOI:10.1080/01431161.2016.1204027
43. Hauer, M. E., J. M. Evans, and D. R. Mishra (2016). Millions projected to be at risk from sea-level rise in the continental United States, Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate2961
42. Kumar, A., Sk. Md. Equeen, D. R. Mishra, and B. C. Acharya (2016). Remote monitoring of sediment dynamics in a coastal lagoon: Long-term spatio-temporal variability of suspended sediment in Chilika. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 170:155-172; doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2016.01.018
41. Mishra, D. R., E. D'Sa, and S. Mishra (2016). Preface: Remote Sensing of Water Resources. Remote Sensing, 8(2): 115; doi:10.3390/rs8020115
40. Ghosh, S., D. R. Mishra, and A. Gitelson (2016). Long-term monitoring of biophysical characteristics of tidal wetlands in the northern Gulf of Mexico — A methodological approach using MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment, 173: 39-58; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2015.11.015
39. Srichandan, S., B. Maharana, J. Y. Kim, A. Kumar, D. R. Mishra, P. Bhadury, P. R. Muduli, A. K. Pattnaik, and G. Rastogi (2015). Interannual and cyclone-driven variability in phytoplankton communities of a tropical coastal lagoon. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 101(1): 39-52; DOI 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.11.030
38. Mishra, D. R., S. Ghosh, C. Hladik, J. L. O'Connell, and H. J. Cho (2015). Wetland mapping methods and techniques using multi-sensor, multi-resolution remote sensing: Successes and Challenges. In: Prasad S. Thenkabail (ed.) Remote Sensing Handbook, Vol. III, pp. 191-226, ISBN: 13: 978-1-4822-1972-6, CAT# K22131, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL
37. Du, X., D. Cao, D. R. Mishra, S. Bernardes, T. R. Jordan, and M. Madden (2015). Change detection in coal seam spontaneous combustion areas using ASTER thermal infrared data. Remote Sensing, 7: 6576-6610; doi:10.3390/rs70606576
36. Mishra, D. R., and S. Ghosh (2015). Using moderate resolution satellite sensors for monitoring the biophysical parameters and phenology of tidal wetlands. In: Ralph Tiner, Victor Klemas, and Megan Lang (eds.) Remote Sensing of Wetlands: Applications and Advances,
pp. 283-314, ISBN: 13: 978-1-4822-3738-2, Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL
35. Mishra, S., D. R. Mishra (2014). A novel remote sensing algorithm to quantify phycocyanin in cyanobacterial algal blooms. Environmental Research Letters, 9:114003, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/11/114003
34. Mishra, D. R., (2014). "Editorial on Coastal Remote Sensing". GIScience and Remote Sensing, 51(2): 115-119, doi: 10.1080/15481603.2014.895579
33. Cho, H., I. Ogashawara, D. R. Mishra, J. White, A. Kamerosky, L. Morris, C. Clarke, A. Simpson, and D. Banisakher (2014). Evaluating Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) data for seagrass mapping in Indian River Lagoon, FL. GIScience and Remote Sensing, 51(2): 120-138, doi: 10.1080/15481603.2014.895577
32. Mishra, D. R., B. A. Schaeffer, and D. Keith (2014). Performance evaluation of Normalized Difference Chlorophyll Index in northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries using the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean. GIScience and Remote Sensing, 51(2): 175-198, doi: 10.1080/15481603.2014.895581
31. Mishra S., D. R. Mishra, and Z. Lee (2014). Bio-optical inversion in highly turbid and cyanobacteria dominated waters. IEEE Transactions in Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 52(1): 375-388; doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2013.2240462
30. Ogashawara, I., D. R. Mishra, S. Mishra, M. Pedroso Curtarelli, J. Luiz Stech (2013). A performance review of reflectance based algorithms for predicting phycocyanin concentrations in inland waters. Remote Sensing, 5(10): 4774-4798, doi: 10.3390/rs5104774
29. Mishra, D. R., and S. Ghosh (2013). Moderate resolution satellite data for mapping salt marshes. SPIE Newsroom, doi: 10.1117/2.1201304.004800
28. Cho J., S. Mishra, and D. R. Mishra (2013). Graphical user interface for benthic mapping. ACEEE International Journal on Information Technology, 3(1): 23-27, doi: 01.IJIT.3.1.1138
27. Mishra S., D. R. Mishra, and Z. Lee (2013). Quantifying cyanobacterial phycocyanin concentration in turbid productive waters: A quasi-analytical approach. Remote Sensing of Environment, 133: 141-151, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2013.02.004
26. Cho, H. J., D. R. Mishra, P. Kirui, and J. Wood (2012). Remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation. In: Boris Escalante-Ramirez (ed.) Remote Sensing - Applications, ISBN: 978-953-51-0651-7, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/remote-sensing-applications/remote-sensing-of-submerged-aquatic-vegetation.
25. Dash P., N. Walker, D. R. Mishra, E. D'Sa, and S. Ladner (2012). Atmospheric correction and vicarious calibration of Oceansat-1 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) data in coastal case 2 waters. Remote Sensing, 4(6): 1716-1740, doi: 10:3390/rs4061716
24. Relles, N. J., D. O. B. Jones, and D. Mishra (2012). Creating landscape-scale maps of coral reef cover for marine reserve management from high resolution multispectral remote sensing. GIScience and Remote Sensing, 49(2): 251-274, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/1548-1603.49.2.251
23. Mishra, D. R., H. J. Cho, S. Ghosh, C. Downs, A. Fox, P. B. T. Merani, P. Kirui, N. Jackson, and S. Mishra (2012). Post-spill state of the marsh: Remote estimation of the ecological impact of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill on Louisiana salt marshes. Remote Sensing of Environment,118: 176-185, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2011.11.007
22. Mishra, S., D. R. Mishra (2012). Normalized Difference Chlorophyll Index: A novel model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in turbid productive waters. Remote Sensing of Environment,117: 394-406, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2011.10.016
21. Dash P., N. Walker, D. R. Mishra, C. Hu, J. L. Pinckney, and E. J. D'Sa (2011). Estimation of cyanobacterial pigments in a freshwater lake using OCM satellite data, Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 3409-3423; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2011.08.004
20. Swain, S., S. Narumalani, and D. R. Mishra (2011). Monitoring Invasive Species: Detecting Purple Loosestrife and Evaluating Biocontrol along the Niobrara River, Nebraska. GIScience and Remote Sensing, 48, 225-244; DOI:10.2747/1548-1603.48.2.225
19. Mishra, D. R., and S. Mishra (2010). Plume and bloom: effect of the Mississippi River diversion on the water quality of Lake Pontchartrain. Geocrato International, DOI: 10.1080/10106041003763394.
18. Mishra, D. R., (2009). High-resolution ocean color remote sensing of coral reefs and associated benthic habitats. In: X. Yang (ed.) Remote Sensing and GIS for Coastal Ecosystem Assessment and Management: Principles and Applications. XIV, 561 p., ISBN: 978-3-540-88182-7, Springer-Verlag GMBH, Germany.
17. Mishra, S., D. R. Mishra, and W. Schluchter (2009). A novel model for predicting phycocyanin concentrations in cyanobacteria: A proximal hyperspectral remote sensing approach. Remote Sensing, 1(4), 758-775; doi:10.3390/rs1040758
16. Rundquist, D., A. Gitelson, M. Lawson, G. Keydan, B. Leavitt, R. Perk, J. Keck, D. R. Mishra, and S. Narumalani (2009). Proximal sensing of coral features: spectral characterization of Siderastrea siderea. GIScience and Remote Sensing, 46(2): 139-160, doi:10.2747/1548-1603.46.2.139
15. Narumalani, S., D. R. Mishra, R. Wilson, P. Reece, and A. Kohler (2009). Detecting and Mapping Four Invasive Species along the Floodplain of North Platte River, Nebraska. Weed Technology, 23:99-107, doi:10.1614/WT-08-007.1
14. Hoffman, J. D., S. Narumalani, D. R. Mishra, P. Merani, and R. G. Wilson (2008). Predicting Potential Occurrence and Spread of Invasive Plant Species along the North Platte River, Nebraska. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 1:359-367, doi:10.1614/IPSM-07-048.1
13. Mishra, D. R., S. Narumalani, D. Rundquist, M. P. Lawson, and R. Perk (2007). Enhancing the detection and classification of coral reef and associated benthic habitats: A hyperspectral remote sensing approach. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, C08014, doi:10.1029/2006JC003892
12. Narumalani, S., D. R. Mishra, J. Burkholder, Paul B. T. Merani, and G. Wilson (2006). A comparative evaluation of ISODATA and Spectral Angle Mapping for the detection of Saltcedar using airborne hyperspectral imagery. Geocarto International, 21(2): 59-66; DOI:10.1080/10106040608542384
11. Mishra, D. R., S. Narumalani, D. Rundquist, and M. P. Lawson (2006). Benthic habitat mapping in tropical marine environments using QuickBird imegery. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 72(9): 1037-1048.
10. Mishra, D. R., S. Narumalani, R. Bahl, D. Rundquist, and M. P. Lawson (2006). Predicting the percent cover of corals: An in-situ remote sensing approach. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L06603, doi:10.1029/2005GL025056.
9. Mishra, D. R., S. Narumalani, D. Rundquist, and M. P. Lawson (2005). Characterizing the vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance in coastal water: Implications for water penetration by high resolution satellite data. ISPRS Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 60: 48-64; doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2005.09.003
8. Narumalani, S., D. R. Mishra, M. Karabulut, and M. A. Palecki, (2005). An assessment of vegetation response to different moisture conditions using SPOT-XS data. International Journal of Geoinformatics, 1(2): 33-46.
7. Singh, R. P., D. R. Mishra, A. K. Sahoo, and S. Dey (2005). Spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture over India using IRS P4 MSMR Data, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26(10): 2241-2247; DOI: 10.1080/01431160500043723
6. Mishra, D. R., S. Narumalani, D. Rundquist, and M. Lawson (2005). High resolution ocean color remote sensing of benthic habitats: A case study at the Roatan Island, Honduras. IEEE Transactions in Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 43 (7): 1592-1604; doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2005.847790
5. Mishra, D. R., S. Narumalani, M. P. Lawson, and D. C. Rundquist (2004). Deriving a bathymetric map using IKONOS multispectral data. Giscience and Remote Sensing, 41(4): 301-321; DOI:10.2747/1548-1603.41.4.301
4. Narumalani, S., D. R. Mishra, and R. Rothwell (2004). Change detection and landscape metrics for inferring anthropogenic processes at EFMO, Iowa. Remote Sensing of Environment, 91(3): 478-489; doi:10.1016/j.rse.2004.04.008
3. Narumalani, S., D. R. Mishra, and R. Rothwell (2004). Integrating image interpretation and spatial pattern metrics to detect landscape structural change. GIScience and Remote Sensing, 41(1): 25-44.
2. Mishra, D. R., S. Dey, and R. P. Singh (2004). Emissivity of various geological terrains using IRS P4 MSMR data. Journal of Geological Society of India, 63: 453-457.
1. Mishra, D. R., A. K. Sahoo, R. Kanwar, and R. P. Singh (2002). Estimation of monthly rain rate over Indian Ocean region using MSMR data. Current Science, 83 (7): 877-880.
remote sensing-based water quality modeling, land use land cover mapping, object-based image analysis, soil and water assessment
Remote Sensing of Vegetation, Landscape Ecology, Land Use and Habitat Dynamics, Ecology of Wetlands, Carbon Sequestration, Niche Modeling, Plant-Animal Interactions
Remote sensing of water quality parameters such as:
â€‹Total suspended sediments
Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms
Satellite remote sensing of optically active constituents, Atmospheric correction development for turbid aquatic ecosystems, Inland and coastal water quality, Development of image processing techniques using Matlab
Human-environmental interactions; Spatial heterogeneity; Spatial analysis; Ecosystem functioning and processes; Environmental law; Policy and history